Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox and Regent of Scotland
by Michael Thomas Barry
On September 4, 1571, Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox and Regent of Scotland was assassinated. Stewart was the leader of the Catholic nobility in Scotland and was the grandson of James VI of Scotland. He spent most of his youth in exile in England, but returned to Scotland to assert his claims to the line of succession when James V died in 1542. At the time of the king's death in 1542, Lennox possessed a strong claim to the throne of Scotland should Mary, Queen of Scots, an infant, pass away childless.